How is fluoride manufactured?

Fluoride is manufactured through a process that separates fluoride from phosphorus. Phosphorus is primarily used by the fertilizer industry for fertilizer. The fluoride is used by the water industry. Fluoride used in drinking water is tested and must meet AWWA and NSF standards for purity. FMI.

How does water fluoridation compare to other public health measures?

To protect public health we:

  • add folic acid to cereal products to prevent birth defects;
  • add iodide to salt to prevent goiter;
  • add chlorine to water to disinfect it;
  • add vitamin D to milk to build stronger bones.

Fluoridation is similar to other ways we protect public health.

Some controversy surrounds fluoridation. Opponents question the benefits and safety of ingesting fluoride.

How much fluoride is added to the water?

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends a 0.7 mg/l optimal level of fluoride in drinking water to prevent tooth decay. The Portland Water District maintains an average of 0.70 mg/l. Recently, the Portland Water District was awarded the Water Fluoridation Quality Award from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for achieving excellence in community water fluoridation by maintaining a consistent level of fluoridated water.

How can I conserve water in the bathroom?

Two thirds of the water used in the average home is in the bathroom, mostly for flushing toilets, showers, and baths.


How can I conserve water in the kitchen and laundry room?

  1. Use appliances efficiently. Run full loads in the dish or clothes washer or, if your appliance has one, use a load selector.
  2. Buy a water saver. Select new appliances that are designed to minimize water use.
  3. Clean vegetables and fruit efficiently. Use a vegetable brush to expedite cleaning.
  4. Use garbage grinders as little as possible. Start a compost pile.
  5. Keep a pitcher of drinking water in the refrigerator. Avoid running the tap just to cool water for drinking or utilize that water for other uses such as watering plants.

How can I reduce outside water usage?

  1. Water the lawn and garden only when necessary. Early morning or evening are the best times. Let grass grow higher in dry weather. Mulch your trees and plants. Avoid watering driveways and sidewalks.
  2. Deep-soak your lawn. Allow the moisture to soak down to the roots where it does the most good. A light sprinkling evaporates quickly.
  3. Plant drought resistant trees and plants. Many beautiful trees and plants thrive with less watering, particularly native species.

Do water leaks really matter?

Leaks. Unseen or unfixed, they can drip hundreds, even thousands of gallons of water wastefully down the drain. A little detective work several times a year can catch these water thieves in the act and put them out of circulation.

How do I know if my toilet is leaking?

Toilets: Approximately 27% of your water usage comes from toilet flushing. A leaky toilet can have a major impact on your bill. The toilet is one of the most common water wasters but its leaks tend to be less noticeable than faucet leaks.

Here are some obvious signs of a leaking toilet:


What are some common causes of toilet leaks?

Possible causes of toilet leaks include:


How do I know if my faucet or shower is leaking?

Approximately 16% of your usage comes through your faucet. Each faucet that drips 60 times a minute adds up to 1,225 gallons per year of wasted water. Faucet leaks can occur inside your home or at your outside spigot.